一项基于21世纪的研究表明，帮助学习者成为全球社会有生产力的公民的许多技能是无法通过标准化测试来衡量的。相反，当学生学习他们的过程，反思他们自己在一个协作小组的工作，也反思他们如何贡献，谈判，与其他小组成员互动，努力水平，动机，兴趣和生产力提高。此外，通过向同龄人提供积极的评论和建设性的反馈，学生们将发展他们的社交技能，这有助于他们意识到自己的优势，并提高他们与他人的互动。Anastasiya a . Lipnevich和Jeffrey K. Smith(2009)的研究结果表明，帮助学生复习自己作业的精确和具体的反馈是形成性反馈方法最显著的好处。基于本研究，传统的分数形式的反馈降低了详细反馈的积极效果。这是因为分数通常会对任务产生负面影响。此外，基于案例研究(Renee M. Clary, Robert F. Brzuszek, C. Taze Fulford, 2011)，涉及初中生和高中生水平的本科生(N = 40)，红标似乎是评估基于项目的学习任务中的创造力的一个合适和有效的工具。教师在使用形成性评估时可能遇到的唯一挑战是同伴评估的信度和效度问题。同伴评估的可靠性可能会受到学生之间友谊水平的影响。根据一项研究(Ernesto Panadero, Margarida Romero, Jan-Willem Strijbos, 2013)，很明显，rubrics提高了对学生之间低至中等水平友谊的评估的有效性，但当友谊水平高时，它们增加了“超额得分”。
Based on a study carried many of twenty-first-century skills that help learners become productive citizens of a global society are not measurable by standardized tests. Rather, when students learn their processes, reflect on their own work in a collaborative group and also reflect how well they contributed, negotiated, interacted with other group members, the level of efforts, motivations, interests and productivity increased. In addition, by providing positive comments and constructive feedbacks to their peers, students will develop their social skills which help them become aware of their own strengths and improve their interactions with each other.The findings of a research by Anastasiya A. Lipnevich and Jeffrey K. Smith (2009) demonstrates that precise and specific feedback that helps students review their own work is the most significant benefit of formative feedback approach. Based on this study, traditional feedback in the form of grades decreases the positive effect of detailed feedback. This happens because grades usually cause negative effect around the task. Furthermore, based on a case study (Renee M. Clary, Robert F. Brzuszek, C. Taze Fulford, 2011) involved junior and senior level undergraduates (N = 40), the rubric appears to be an appropriate and effective tool for assessing creativity in project-based learning tasks.The only challenge that teachers might encounter when using formative assessment is the matter of reliability and validity of peer assessment. The reliability of the peer assessment might be affected by the level of friendship between the students. According to a study (Ernesto Panadero, Margarida Romero, Jan-Willem Strijbos, 2013), it is clear that rubrics enhance validity of the assessment for low to medium level of friendship between students, but they increase “over-scoring” when the level of friendship is high.