Keywords: mathematics assignment代写
什么是指纹？指纹是个体特征。没有人，即使是双胞胎有相同的DNA，完全一致的指纹标记（埃里米尔相同的模式，Elberrichi，adjoudj，与benyettou，2009）。每个人都有指纹。上帝使我们每个人都有不同的独特的指纹。为什么我说我们每个人都有独特的指纹？好的，这是因为每个人拥有一套独特的细节。除了指纹的唯一性，指纹也不随时间改变的除非打印本身可能由于永久疤痕的变化，疾病或化学反应。指纹中的脊是什么？什么是细节？在科学和法医学方面，指纹的作用是什么？我们将准确地描述在这篇研究论文。 法医学在过去的300年里发展起来，它的过程不断改进，成为一种更好、更有效、更准确的技术。第一个美国法医实验室是由警察局在洛杉矶成立的。在马来西亚，警察的法医实验室建立的历史开始于1974，由奥玛尔和YDH屯督哈尼夫正式推出警察法医实验室建立的开幕式。 什么是法医学？取证是犯罪侦查中使用的术语。取证科学涉及许多科学领域，包括色谱和光谱分析化学，生物如昆虫、行为和DNA测试和物理科学如血液飞溅分析弹道指纹。如今，法医学被用来调查几乎所有的犯罪现场，大多数的法医科学技术是刑事调查的共同和必要的一部分。 年代学研究指纹方面的科学取证始于1788 J. C. Mayer，德国解剖学家声称，没有两个人，即使是同卵双胞胎，有完全相同的指纹标记模式。1823、捷克解剖学家Jan Evangelista浦金野将指纹分为九种类型。1860，Herschel鼓励使用书面签名的地方指纹防止欺诈。苏格兰医生，亨利福尔兹开始收集和研究指纹1878。1880，他又一次来到了使用指纹识别犯盗窃犯罪的几个地方。1884，Alphonse Bertillon的人体识别系统的使用和识别241重复罪犯被巴黎警方。1884，高尔顿开始在识别物理标记遗传与某些精神特征希望学习人体测量学。1887，在美国和加拿大的警察部队开始使用人体测量学。技术的新纪元开始于高尔顿开发了1891的指纹分类系统。在1896-97、亨利Azizul Haque和汉姆查德拉·鲍斯，开发了指纹分类叫亨利系统出版了1900。美国联邦调查局或被称为联邦调查局建立综合自动指纹识别系统（IAFIS）这是1999的一个计算机全国指纹数据库
What is fingerprint? Fingerprint are individual characteristics. No two people, not even identical twins having similar DNA, have exactly the same pattern of fingerprint mark (Elmir, Elberrichi, Adjoudj, & Benyettou, 2009). Everyone has a fingerprint. God makes every each of us a different unique fingerprint. And why did I said that the each of us has unique fingerprint? Well, it is simply because each individual possesses a unique set of minutiae. Besides the uniqueness of fingerprint, fingerprint also does not change with time unless the print itself may change due to permanent scars, deceases or chemical reactions. What is ridge in fingerprint? What is a minutiae? And what is it to do with fingerprint in term of sciences and forensics? We will describe it precisely in this research paper.Forensic science has developed over the past 300 years and its process to improve to become a better and more efficient and also accurate techniques. The first American forensic lab was founded in Los Angeles by the police department. In Malaysia, the history of establishment of PDRM Forensic Laboratory began in 1974 which inspired by YDH Tun Haniff Omar and was officially launch the opening ceremony of the establishment of PDRM Forensic Laboratory.What is forensic science? Forensics is the term that used in the investigation of crimes. Forensics science cover many area of science which includes chemistry such as chromatography and spectroscopic analysis, biology such as entomology, fingerprinting behavior and DNA testing and physical science such as blood spatter analysis and ballistics. These days forensic science is used to investigate nearly all crime scenes, most forensic science techniques are common and necessary part of a criminal investigation.The chronology study of fingerprint in terms of science and forensics begins in 1788 when J. C. Mayer, the German anatomist claims that no two people, not even identical twins, have exactly the same pattern of fingerprint mark. In 1823, Czech anatomist Jan Evangelista Purkyne divides fingerprints into nine types. In 1860, Herschel encourages use of fingerprints in place of written signatures to prevent fraud. Scottish physician, Henry Faulds begins collecting and studying fingerprint in 1878. In 1880, he once again came out with uses fingerprints to identify criminals who committed several local thefts. In 1884, the uses of Alphonse Bertillon’s anthropometry identification system and identify 241 repeat criminals by Paris Police. In 1884, Galton begins studying anthropometry in hope of identifying physical markers inherited with certain mental characteristics. In 1887, police forces in United States and Canada begin using anthropometry. The new era in technology begins when Galton has developed the system for classifying fingerprints in 1891. In 1896-97, Henry with Azizul Haque and Hemchandra Bose, develops the system of fingerprint classification called Henry System and was published in 1900. United States Federal Bereau of Investigation or known as FBI establishes Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) which is a computerized national fingerprint database in 1999.