许多因素影响着私立学校和公立学校的作用。主要的区别因素之一是学校的资金来源。公立学校主要依靠地方、州和联邦政府的资金。私立学校大多是靠学费来资助的，有时也会有其他非公共来源的资助，比如捐赠基金、宗教组织、助学金和慈善捐款。在其他一些州，私立学校也可以接受某些服务的公共资金(Choy, 1998)。换句话说，公立学校是由政府资助的;对所有学生都是免费的，而私立学校对每个学生都收取学费，而且不是政府资助的。由于私立学校不接受政府的资助，必须自己筹集资金，私立学校的管理人员在他们认为合适的情况下可以有更多的灵活性来管理学校。然而，公立学校必须遵守由选出的学校董事会成员宣布的严格规则。学生的学业成绩在很大程度上取决于教师的性质和经验。重要的是要知道私立学校和公立学校的教师工资是不同的。学校雇用和留住优秀教师的能力是非常重要的，并且从根本上与相关教师的工资有关。根据国家教育统计中心(National Center for Education Statistics)的数据，2011-12年间，公立学校和私立学校全职教师之间的差距很大。仅在公立学校，教师的平均工资就约为53,070美元。拥有公立学校博士学位的学生，平均工资约为60230美元。在私立学校，教师的平均工资大约是40200美元。拥有博士学位的学生，平均年薪为52,590美元。工资与平均工资的差异接近34,893美元。教师的工资因经验水平而异，但根据这些统计数据，即使拥有博士学位，公立学校的工资也比私立学校高。尽管私立学校教师的工资低于公立学校教师，但据报道，私立学校教师更有可能对自己的工作条件感到满意。
Many factors affect the role of private and public schools. One of the main differentiating factors is how schools are funded. Public schools rely mainly on local, state, and federal government funds. Private schools are mostly assisted by tuition payments and sometimes by funds from other non-public sources like, endowments, religious organizations, grants, and charitable donations. In some other states, private schools can also receive public funds for certain services (Choy, 1998). In other words, public schools are governmentally funded therefore; being free to all students while private schools charge tuition to every student and are not governmentally funded. Since, Private schools do not receive government funding and must raise their own funds the private school officials get more flexibility into running schools as they see fit. Whereas, public schools must follow strict rules announced by elected school board members.Students’ academic achievement depends greatly on the nature and experience of teachers. Its crucial to know that private and public schooling varies in teacher pay. The ability of schools to hire and retain excellent instructors is of great character and is fundamentally linked to relative teacher pay. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011-12 the gap between full time teachers in public and private schools differed greatly. In public schools alone, the mean salary for a teacher was about $53,070 dollars. With a doctorate degree in public schools, the mean salary was about $60,230 dollars. In private schools, the mean salary for teachers was about $40,200 dollars. With a doctorate degree, the average was $52,590 dollars. The variance in pay from the mean salary is nearly $34,893 dollars. Teachers pay varies depending on the level of experience but based on these statistics even with a doctorate degree public schools pay more than private schools. Although, private school teachers get paid less than public school teachers it has been reported that private school teachers are more likely to be satisfied with their working conditions.