竞争优势定义为特点,特性或一个组织拥有的机会,这将使它比竞争对手更有吸引力邓宁Ownership-location-internalization理论声称为了海外投资成功,公司必须有所有权优势,可以补偿设置的附加成本和操作一个外国值添加操作为例,发达国家跨国公司获得的竞争优势大多来自于独特的产品和工艺，以及高度认可的品牌。来自发达国家的跨国公司通常投资于发展中国家受益于低劳动力成本和其他成本优势,然而,他们没有在本国魏和阿龙等指出,许多学者质疑奥利理论通过强调,来自新兴国家的跨国公司迟到者的缺乏这样的所有权优势在海外投资,而不是利用国外现有的市场资源和资产,新兴国家的跨国公司正致力于开发新的资源、技能和知识，以获得他们所需要的竞争优势。Athreye和Kapur甚至得出结论，中国的跨国公司并不试图利用竞争优势，而是通过在全球市场中学习和运作来解决和减少竞争劣势。另一种理论观点是联系、杠杆和学习(LLL)模型。该模型展示了新兴跨国公司如何利用他们的FDIs和全球联系来利用他们的资源，同时了解新的竞争优势来源，并通过LLL路径成为国际竞争者。此外，企业的竞争优势在很大程度上依赖于其“吸收能力”，即识别、吸收和利用外部知识的能力(Cohen和Levinthal 1990)。由于来自发达国家的外资流入，这些跨国公司产生了一定程度的知识或技术溢出，使中国跨国公司能够学习并将新知识应用到其运营中(Kotabe和Kothari 2016;优素福2003;迈耶2004)。Niosi和Tschang(2009)指出，通过吸收和利用新知识，中国跨国公司已经逐渐进入包括高科技产品和软件在内的更高水平的生产。此外，中国跨国公司积极参与与地方政府、公司和大学的网络活动，以利用来自本土和东道国的新知识(Peng 2012)。例如，“华人”业务是一贯的合作和相互融合。新来者可以学习、跟随和与现有的人合作。
Competitive advantage is defined as a characteristic, feature or opportunity that an organisation possesses that will make it more attractive than its competitors Dunning’s Ownership-location-internalization theory claimed that in order to invest overseas successfully, the companies must have some ownership advantages that can compensate the additional cost of setting up and operating a foreign value adding operation For instance, the competitive advantages that developed country MNEs acquired are mostly derived from unique products and processes as well as highly recognised brands. MNESs from developed countries normally invested in developing countries to benefit from low cost labour and other cost advantages which they don’t have in their home countries However, Wei and Alon et al pointed out that many scholars have challenged OLI theory by highlighting that the latecomer MNEs from emerging countries are lack of such ownership advantages before they invest overseas, instead of exploiting foreign existing market resources and assets, MNEs from emerging countries are aiming to explore new resources, skills and knowledge to gain their needed competitive advantages. Athreye and Kapur even elicited that Chinese MNEs do not attempt to exploit competitive advantages, but to address and diminish their competitive disadvantages by learning and operating in global markets.Another theoretical view is the linkage, leverage and learning (LLL) model. This model demonstrated how new comer MNEs use their FDIs and global connections to leverage their resources, and simultaneously to learn about new sources of competitive advantages and to become international competitors through the LLL paths . Moreover, a firm’s competitive advantages heavily rely on its “absorptive capacity” which specified the ability to recognise, assimilate and exploit external knowledge (Cohen and Levinthal 1990). Thanks to the inward FDIs from developed countries, those MNEs generated certain level of knowledge or technology spillovers, which allow Chinese MNEs to learn and implement the new knowledge into their operations (Kotabe and Kothari 2016; Yusuf 2003; Meyer 2004). Niosi and Tschang (2009) pointed out that Chinese MNEs has gradually worked its way up into higher-level production that includes high technology products and software by absorbing and utilizing new knowledge. Furthermore, Chinese MNEs proactively engage in networking activities with local governments, firms and universities to leverage new knowledge from both home and host countries (Peng 2012). For instance, the “ethnic Chinese” business are consistently cooperate and integrate with each other. The new comers can learn, follow and cooperate with the existing ones.